Tuesday, June 30, 2020

Basics of Decision Making Research Assignment Paper - 550 Words

Basics of Decision Making Research Assignment Paper (Essay Sample) Content: Basics of Decision MakingVictor MwangiBasics of Decision Making Decision-making can be defined as a problem-solving activity terminated by a solution deemed to be satisfactory. It is therefore a process which can be more or less HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rationality" \o "Rationality"rational or HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrationality" \o "Irrationality"irrational and can be based on HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explicit_knowledge" \o "Explicit knowledge"explicit or HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacit_knowledge" \o "Tacit knowledge"tactic knowledge. A large part of decision-making involves the analysis of specific set of options described in terms of evaluative procedure. Then the task might be to arrange these alternative options in terms of how good they are to the decision-maker(s) when all the criteria are considered together. Another task might be to find the best option or to determine the relative total priority of each alternative (for instance, if alternatives represent projects competing for funds) when all the procedures are considered simultaneously. Solving such problems is the focus of HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple-criteria_decision_analysis" \o "Multiple-criteria decision analysis"multiple-criteria decision analysis . This aspect of decision-making, although very ancient, has attracted the interest of many researchers and practitioners and is still highly debated as there are  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple-criteria_decision_analysis" \o "Multiple-criteria decision analysis" multiple-criteria decision analysis methods which may yield very different results when they are applied on exactly the same data. This leads to the formulation of a paradoxical HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision-making_paradox" \o "Decision-making paradox"decision-making.  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic" \o "Logic"L ogical decision-making is an important part of all science-based professions, where specialists apply their HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge" \o "Knowledge"knowledge in a given area to make informed decisions. A good example is, medical decision-making often involves a HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_diagnosis" \o "Medical diagnosis"diagnosis and the selection of appropriate treatment. But HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturalistic_decision-making" \o "Naturalistic decision-making"naturalistic decision-making research shows that in situations with higher time pressure, higher stakes, or increased ambiguities, experts may use HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intuition_%28psychology%29" \o "Intuition (psychology)"intuitive decision-making rather than structured approaches. They may decide to follow a HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recognition_primed_decision" \o "Recognition primed decision"recognition prim ed decision that fits their experience and arrive at a course of action without weighing any options. Human performance has been the subject of active research from several perspectives:HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology" \o "Psychology"Psychological: examining individual decisions in the context of a set of needs, preferences and values the individual has or seeks.HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognition" \o "Cognition"Cognitive: the decision-making process regarded as a continuous process integrated in the interaction with the environment.Prescriptive: this is the of personal decisions related with the logic of decision-making, and the invariant option it leads to. The decision-maker's surrounding can play a part in the decision-making process. A good example is, surrounding complexity is a factor that influences cognitive function. A complex environment is an environment with a large number of different possible states which come and go over tim e. Research done at the HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Colorado" \o "University of ...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

questions for scene 1 2 3 macbeth - 1232 Words

Macbeth Act 1 SCENE 1 1. What atmosphere is established in this scene? Scary and bad and dark and rainy 2. What purpose does this scene serve? Something bad is going to happen in the future 3. Explain the concluding heroic couplet? Fair and foul are important throughout the story. it shows that somehow Macbeth and the witches are connected. Something good and bad could be happening at the same time SCENE 2 1. Why is King Duncan so pleased with Macbeth? Because he has won victory after victory 2. What does the Captain tell them about Macbeth, Banquo and the battle he was just in? He tells them they both should be honored and also to kill the Thane of Cawdor 3. Who is â€Å"the Norweyan lord†? He is Sweno 4. What news does Ross bring the†¦show more content†¦Explain Banquo’s lines: What, can the devil speak true? (112) These lines mean the outcome will be involved with the devil. He’s asking if the devil speaks the truth because sometimes he wins and the darkness tells the truth. Comparing the witches to the devil . . . oftentimes, to win us to our harm, (135-6) The instruments of darkness tell us truths. 10. Paraphrase Macbeth’s short soliloquy. More of an aside Line 127 it starts Imperial thane- it’s going to come true that he is going to be king It cannot be bad or good if it’s good why is he thinking about killing his own king 11. Banquo comments to Ross and Angus that Macbeth seems lost in thought and distracted by his â€Å"new honors.† How is Macbeth’s response to Banquo significant? The power will get to his head and he will make the wrong decisions 12. Does Macbeth heed his warning? Why, or why not? No Macbeth doesn’t take notice his warning and he thinks everyone is going to be easy and he can handle it Heed means like follow or listen too Doesn’t follow warning Macbeth goes back and forth a lot Macbeth says to Banquo that they are going to talk about it later SCENE IV 1.Why did the Thane of Cawdor die a noble death? Because he confessed before he died and was forgiven 2.Explain the King’s lines: â€Å"There’s no art /To find the mind’s construction in the face.† The king couldn’t tell that the thane of Cawdor was a trader therefore he doesn’t have good judge of character 3.How does Macbeth answerShow MoreRelatedHow Could You? Essay988 Words   |  4 PagesAct 1 Study Guide 1. What do the witches in Scene 1 inform the readers? 2. In Scene 2, what does Duncan order Ross to do? 3. In Scene 3, why does Shakespeare most likely have the witches speak in rhyme instead of blank verse? 4. How does Macbeth show his ambition and curiosity about becoming king in Scene 3? 5. Duncan says to Macbeth, â€Å"Would thou hadst less deserved,† in Scene 4, line 18. What does he mean by this? 6. How does Lady Macbeth know that Duncan is coming toRead MoreEssay about Macbeth Act 4 Questions946 Words   |  4 PagesAct I Study Questions Name __Sara Sirull__ 1. What atmosphere is established in Scene 1? A dark, creepy, evil atmosphere is established in Scene 1. 2. How does Banquo describe the Witches when he first sees them upon the heath? He describes them as looking like Aliens. They look shriveled up and wrinkled and they have beards so he is not sure if they are male or female. 3. Macbeth is reported to be a valiant soldier in Act I. The line, â€Å"Till he unseamed him from the nave toRead MoreSympathy for Macbeth1715 Words   |  7 Pageshave any sympathy for Macbeth at the end of the play? Our first impressions of Macbeth are that he is a hero, he is brave and fearless, and although we get this impression we also get the feeling that he is ruthless. We get this impression from the way he is referred to when his name is first mentioned. Macbeth has just been in battle against The merciless Macdonwald and a Captain is talking about how Macbeth and his fellow Captain, Banquo, performed in battle. While Macbeth is in battle the ThaneRead MoreHow Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are Influenced by the Supernatural in Macbeth by William Shakespeare1059 Words   |  5 PagesHow Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are Influenced by the Supernatural in Macbeth by William Shakespeare In Shakespeare’s time witches were believed to have many powers. They were believed to talk to the devil, the dead and evil spirits. They were believed to predict the future (act 1. Scene 1 – ‘When shall we three meet again in thunder lightning or in rain?’) and change the weather. People thought they could fly throuhg air and make themselves invisible at will. People alsoRead MoreEssay on Shakespeares Creation of a Sense of Climax in Macbeth934 Words   |  4 PagesShakespeares Creation of a Sense of Climax in Macbeth William Shakespeare wrote four great tragedies, the last of which was written in 1606 and titled Macbeth. In writing Macbeth, Shakespeare creates a sense of climax in Macbeth in many ways and these helped to make the story last long in readers memory. They are: The pace of the scenes which rise the speed of the story; the increasing eruption of supernatural through the play, it works as a foreshadowing which makes Read MoreAnalysis Of Shakespeare s Macbeth By William Shakespeare1236 Words   |  5 PagesDanna Santillan English H 2 Period 2 22 October 2016 Are Things Truly How They Appear? All things have an appearance, most of the time blissfully untainted or highly corrupt. Dependent upon the appearance something is illustrated to have, we layout our own supposition about it. This idea of equivocation is abundant in Shakespeare’s tragedy, Macbeth. In Macbeth, Shakespeare exposes literary devices such as illustrative imagery, sarcastic similes, and dubious diction to unveil one of his manyRead MoreWhat Dramatic Techniques Does Shakespeare Use to Create a Sense That Macbeth Is Not in Control of His Own Thoughts and Deeds?1434 Words   |  6 PagesShakespeare Use To Create A Sense That Macbeth Is Not In Control Of His Own Thoughts And Deeds? During the 16th century the amazing writer, William Shakespeare, wrote the genius play Macbeth. There are many different uses of dramatic techniques in his work and I will try to identify them now. Act 1 Scene 7 Question 1 In the first few lines of his soliloquy, Macbeth says If it were done when tis done, then twere well it were done quickly; I think what Macbeth meant by this, is that if the murderRead MoreMacbeth Essay856 Words   |  4 Pages2012 MacBeth 5 Paragraph Essay A Tragic Tale of Ambition A Play By: William Shakespeare ENG-3UR As Shakespeare s tale of tragic ambition Macbeth progresses, Lady Macbeth undergoes a metamorphosis moving from a stable, loving wife, into a power hungry woman driven to madness by her own obsession for complete control. Although when the question who is ultimately responsible for Duncan s death is asked, many will point the finger at Lady Macbeth. While she played a role in manipulatingRead MoreHii Boss1725 Words   |  7 PagesThemes   Theme 1: Great ambition, or inordinate lust for power, ultimately brings ruin. For ignoring this ancient rule of living, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth pay with their lives.  Ã‚   Theme 2 Evil wears a pretty cloak. Early in the play, the three witches tell Macbeth that fair is foul,† a paradox suggesting that whatever appears good is really bad. For example, murdering Duncan appears to be a â€Å"fair† idea to Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, for Macbeth would accede to the throne. But the Macbeths soon discoverRead MoreAnswers Macbeth 4acts1696 Words   |  7 PagesAct1 1. What atmosphere is established in Scene 1? The three witches enter. They discuss the next meeting and hear the calls of their spirits (2) 2. How does Banquo describe the Witches when he first sees them upon the heath? From Bonquos description of the three witches you understand that he was both surprised and discussed by their appearance. (13) 3. Macbeth is reported to be a valiant soldier in Act I. The line, â€Å"Till he unseamed him from the nave to th’chops And fixed his head

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Media and Crime - 2502 Words

Media and Crime What is crime? A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms – cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally. This approach considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seeks to understand how changing social, political, psychological, and economic conditions may affect changing definitions of crime and the form of the legal, law-enforcement, and penal responses made by society. These structural realities remain fluid and often contentious. For example: as cultures change and the political environment shifts, societies may criminalize or decriminalize certain behaviors, which will directly affect the statistical crime rates, influence†¦show more content†¦While journalism may be the media profession with the most legitimate claim to exercise influence over the criminal justice system, it is by no means the only way the media exercise such influence. Entertainment media have also been studied and criticized for their influence over public perceptions of the people and institutions that comprise the criminal justice system. A striking amount of television programming has in one way or another (e.g., through comedy, mystery, drama, biography, docudrama, and soap opera) been centered on police, lawyers, judges, criminals, and victims of crime. The effects on public attitudes and behavior that these portrayals may have brought about have received conside rable research attention. Media portrayals of violence, largely in television but also in movies and—increasingly in the 1990s—recorded music, have been studied in part for their potential to inspire real-life criminal behavior. Exposure to violent media content has been argued in criminal defenses as a mitigating factor in the guilt of defendants. Since the early 1980s a television genre has emerged that is part journalism (in that it purports to deal with reality and with important subjects) and in no small part entertainment (in that it is dramatic, enhanced with music and special effects, and often includes actors playing various roles). Shows such as Cops, America s Most Wanted, and Unsolved Mysteries combine footage of actual arrests, interviews withShow MoreRelatedCrime In The Media964 Words   |  4 Pagespassion and keeps you turning the pages salivating for more. Inasmuch the media select stories that will captivate their audience and in turn they end up infiltrating fear and wariness in others. Upwards of eighty-one percent of Americans have access to some type of media coverage and with continual coverage of shootings, assaults, high-speed chases and theft; it makes it difficult to not deduce the increase in crimes like the media persuades (Brown, 2015, March 11). The Federal Bureau of InvestigationRead MoreMedi a and Crime2169 Words   |  9 Pagescases covered by the news media closely, and feel confident enough to make judgements about guilt and innocence (Hough, 2005, p. 7). Television schedules are crammed with programmes about the police, criminals, prisoners and the courts and are syndicated around the world. Why are people – the audience – so fascinated by crime and deviance? And if the media can so successfully engage the public’s fascination, can they equally tap into – and increase – people’s fears about crime? Is the media’s interestRead MoreInfluence of Media on Crime.788 Words   |  4 PagesIs Media Responsible for the Increasing Crime Rate? It is believed that the great Plato had a question similar to this, he was worried whether the violence in plays will have a negative effect on people of his land. We cannot mitigate the influence of media on the society. Some believe that it is the curse for the contemporary society, as it invigorates individuals to commit crimes. Are these people right? Read on to know the answer to this grave question. Contrary to the popular belief, mediaRead MoreEssay on Crime and the Media1289 Words   |  6 PagesCrime and the Media The public depends on the news media for its understanding of crime. Reportedly three quarters (76%) of the public say, they form their opinions about crime from what they see or read in the news (Dorfman amp; Schiraldi, 2001). After reviewing five hours of reality crime television shows, one is left with a very dismal look on society and a prejudice towards minorities as they are largely depicted as the perpetrators of crime. This new genre commonly referred to as reality televisionRead MoreWomen, Crime, and the Media1859 Words   |  8 Pages  Media representation has always been a topic of debate, from representation of minority groups, individuals with mental illnesses and gender presentations. The latter, of course, turns mostly towards the female characters as they are presented in various medias; movies, news, and television shows. The representation of women in the media has always been leaning more towards ‘pleasing’ than it is towards informative or accurate. Representation of female offenders in the media has not deviated fromRead MoreThe Effects Of Crime And The Media, Women And Crime, And Theories Of Crime Essay1965 Words   |  8 Pagesthought to crime. It was always in the back of my mind because of the seemingly increasing chances of becoming a victim of crime. Over the semester I have explored a range of topics relating to crime. The purpose of this essay is to reflect upon certain topics explored over the semester. I have chosen to focus on topics that had the profound effect on my learning. I have since been able to form an opinion that is back by theory on these topics. The topics chosen are: crime and the media, women andRead MoreThe Effects Of Media On Fear Of Crime1488 Words   |  6 PagesREVIEW OF LITERATURE Overrepresentation of Crime and the Media Numerous studies have been done investigating fear of crime and causal links (Dorfman and Schiraldi 2001; Gerbner and Gross 1976; Hale 1996). However, few empirical studies have been done that examine the effects media has on fear of crime (Chermack 1994). Media is defined as a manner in which we can access information and news through technology (Gillium 2000). This might be on television, radio, newspapers and magazines, and otherRead MoreThe Roles and Influences of Media on Crime730 Words   |  3 Pagesthe political world, media has both a positive and negative affect. Americans as a whole are engrossed with crime whether it be a fictional representation on a person’s favorite television show, or a true story the nightly news. The entertainment media influences our lives in consciously and subconsciously, day in and day out, playing a critical and constantly cultivating role in the criminal justice system and the conduct of politics. How exactly does one determine what media is? According to yourRead MoreNews Commentary On Crime And The Media924 Words   |  4 Pagesa glamorization of crime. News stories on crimes are extremely popular due to the fact that audiences’ remember bad news much easier than good news. Take history for example, much of history is filled with recounts of gruesome murders, wars, and scandals. An estimated 71 million viewers across the country tune in to their local news station’s broadcast (Yanich, 2004, p. 537). It can easily be assumed then that an estimated 71 million people will know the basic details of a crime that their news stationRead MoreMass Media Is Obsessed With Crime Essay1575 Words   |  7 PagesMass media is infatuated with crime. As a society, we have a great deal of fascination when it comes to crime and deviance. It is hard to turn on the television, watch a movie or open a newspaper or book and not be faced with the central and dominant theme that is c rime. In recent years the lines between crime entertainment and crime information have been significantly blurred. The mass media often influences how people see crime, with the bombardment of criminal images and violence, it serves to

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Sanctification Of Jerusalem, By Mircea Eliade Essay

Gregorio 1 Roxanne Gregorio Scott Abramson AN N EA 10W 24 June 2015 The Sanctification of Jerusalem Jerusalem is considered to be among the world’s oldest continuously inhabited cities. It is the birthplace of three major monotheistic faiths: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, which is why this city has an extensive history of being at the center of religious conflicts. Jerusalem became regarded as a holy city when people used it as a place to symbolize God and His presence as well as where He revealed his miraculous works. Mircea Eliade, a historian of religion, demonstrates his theory on how hierophanies establishes the basis of religion and how people see sacredness as something that is valuable to human life because it represents reality, which then transcribes to existence. According to Eliade, hierophany is defined as a type of event that manifests sacredness (11). This is a fundamental tool in determining what makes an ordinary event or object holy. He explains that, â€Å"[b]y manifesting the sacred, any object becomes something els e, yet it continues to remain itself, for it continues to participate in its surrounding cosmic milieu† (Eliade 12). Holy water, for example, remains water despite being blessed by the priest. However, since it is already blessed with prayer, then it becomes â€Å"sacred† to religious people. It becomes a symbol of protection from any evil as well as a way to cleanse one’s soul before entering the holy church. Hierophany Gregorio 2

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Liebnitzian Philosophy and Candide - 837 Words

Everything happens for the best, in this the best of all possible worlds. This is a statement that can be found many times within Voltaires Candide. Voltaire rejected Lebitizian Optimism, using Candide as a means for satirizing what was wrong with the world, and showing that, in reality, this is not the best of all possible worlds. The philosophy of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, which Voltaire called optimism, is one of the main themes of Candide. The two main points of Leibnizian philosophy are that God is beneficent, and that in creating the world, He created the best possible one. Leibniz did not argue that the world was perfect or that evil was non-existent, but thanks to Gods goodness and His constant concern with his creation,†¦show more content†¦Eldorado is another contrast to this best of all possible worlds. It is described as an extremely peaceful and serene country. It is a place that has no need for laws, jails, war, or material goods, which makes it impossible to find. Voltaire uses Eldorado as an epitome of the best of all possible worlds, because it contrasts the real outside world in which war and suffering are everyday occurrences. Throughout Candides life, he believes strongly in optimism, not because he is forced to, but because he was raised in that manner. It is possible, however, that deep down inside, Candide doubts the philosophies of his teacher because of his exposure to immorality in the real world. For example, Candide witnesses the public hanging of two Portuguese Jews simply because they refused to eat bacon for dinner. It is occurrences like these which demonstrate the inhumanity that one person can do to another, which leads Candide to disbelieve Pangloss philosophies. Voltaire rejected Lebitizian Optimism, using Candide as a means for satirizing everything that was wrong with the world, and showing that, in reality, this is not the best of all possible

Symptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease - 810 Words

Alzheimer’s disease As the world becomes more happy and joyful, people haven’t stepped into the world of Alzheimer’s yet. Just imagine losing your ability to do normal things you do every day and then you can’t do them anymore. Alzheimer’s is a type of dementia that causes changes and differences in memory, behavior, and how the person’s brain works. The symptoms of Alzheimer’s worsen over time. (Alzheimer’s Association 2015). All of the family members will be affected if one person gets this disease. This is disease is ranking sixth for the leading cause of death in the US; this is how bad it is. This disease is very common in the USA. The stages of this disease can be very graphic and sometimes extremely disturbing for the family. Ultimately people that have Alzheimer’s usually die from the disease. (National Institute of Health 2015). People with Alzheimer’s are diagnosed with brain scans such as a MRI or CT sca n. When someone has Alzheimer’s they can’t stop or get rid of it. When someone first gets diagnosed with Alzheimer disease they usually forget small things like an item on their grocery list or to finish something at home which they didn’t get a chance to finish at work. This is the earliest stage. In the middle stage people start to forget things like where they are supposed to be driving, forgetting short time friends, where you usually go for coffee, or what your house/apt number is. In the last/most severe stage is when many people die. People that areShow MoreRelatedSymptoms And Symptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease1642 Words   |  7 Pages Abstract Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder when brain cells degenerate and die. Alzheimer’s dieses destroys the patient’s memory within time. The mental functions of the brain also get destroyed when a person gets Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s disease is most commonly seen when the patient is sixty to seventy years old. In this research paper the reader will learn about the signs and symptoms, causes, course of disease, outcome and secondary diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis and survivalRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease930 Words   |  4 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease Kevin Arnold from the Wonder Years said â€Å"Memory is a way of holding on to the things you love, the things you are, and the things never want to lose.† Memories are the things that are upheld, whether good or bad, those memories are imprinted in the mind and cannot be taken away that is, until later in life. As one ages it is natural for some memories to fade. Loss of memories and brain function deficits that occur and are not from normal aging may indicate a person is sufferingRead MoreSymptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease715 Words   |  3 PagesAlzheimer’s disease has long been considered as a irremediable illness for old people. According to the data collected by Alzheimer s Association(2016), the overall 5.4 million American suffers from Alzheimer s disease, and this population is growing in a certain rate for majority of this population aged 65 and up. Identify possible Alzheimer’s symptom could be rather difficult because people are lack of the awareness of their implicit illness, which later contribute to the Alzheimer s disease. AlsoRead MoreSymptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease1006 Words   |  5 PagesAlzheimer s disease is a severe illness that affects the brain and leads to gradual memory loss, reduced intellectual ability and deterioration function of thinking. Alzheimer s disease (AD), the most common type of dementia, is a progressive neurological disorder that increasingly robs individuals of cognitive, behavioral, and functional skills (Demakis, 2007). The reason for the appearance this disease is a collection of disorders in the brain due to which its cells are dying partially. In theRead MoreSymptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease2043 Words   |  9 PagesAlzheimer’s disease. It took an emotional toll on me and my family members. I believe Alzheimer is much harder on me and my loved ones than on my grandfather; because he was unaware of what was going on. It’s painful watching my grandfather degrade and get worse each and every day. The worst thing is that he doesn’t even know who I am anymore. In this paper I will discuss certain risk factors, background of Alzheimer’s, Background of Alzheimer’s Alzheimer’s disease was first identifiedRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease2374 Words   |  10 PagesAs a society, we are constantly faced with negative news about different diseases and genetic disorders. One genetic disorder that has affected the lives of many is, Alzheimer’s Disease. Alzheimer’s is the most common type of dementia that affects and causes problems with thinking, behavior and memory. Most of the time, symptoms of Alzheimer’s develop slowly and progress and worsen over time. Eventually the symptoms become severe enough that they begin to interfere with normal and daily tasksRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease3214 Words   |  13 Pages NEU ID: 001983161 Donepezil and other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer’s disease Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), discovered by Dr. Alois Alzheimer in 1907, is the most common form of dementia. The early symptom of Alzheimer’s disease is having difficulty in remembering recent events. At the advanced stage, the signs and symptoms of AD include: memory loss, confusion, trouble concentrating, frustration, irritability difficulty in saying, difficultyRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease2317 Words   |  10 Pagesthey age and the various experiences they go through. One of the most common diseases among older people is dementia. Among the different types of dementia, the most prevalent one is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is important to look at all of the signs and symptoms of each type of dementia to see which specific type best describes a person’s condition. There is one patient in particular, Betty, who has many signs and symptoms related to dementia. Betty is a 65-year old woman who has dementia runningRead MoreSy mptoms And Treatment Of Alzheimer s Disease1063 Words   |  5 Pageshelp the effects of Alzheimer’s disease, many of these treat the symptoms but not the cause. One specific medication, cholinesterase inhibitors is not fully understood but it is believed to help decrease the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter (About Alzheimer s Disease: Treatment, n.d.). Cholinesterase is both beneficial in it’s aid in treatment and not— this medicine over time causes neurons not to produce as much acetylcholine (About Alzheimer s Disease: Treatment, n.d.). This drug worksRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Alzheimer s Disease1222 Words   |  5 PagesAbstract Alzheimer’s is a disease that attacks the brain and can result in brain death. This disease is chronic and lately a lot of elderly are being diagnosed with it. Alzheimer’s disease can be referred to as a silent killer because once a person gets the diagnosis, they will have it permanently. Alzheimer’s Patients have a decreased short-term memory; this can result with the onset of confusion. At times, families with loved ones that encounter this disease usually have to change their lifestyle

Stakeholder analysis and engagement project - MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: 1. Discuss common reasons why change is resisted and how managers commonly view resistance. 2. Critically examine the key theoretical concepts of resistance considered in this subject and how they are linked to the two key theoretical ontologies used in this subject. 3. Critically examine the relationship between power and resistance, and the ethical issues that these raise in relation to the managerial and resistant positions. 4. Critically discuss the implications of power and resistance for the role of the change agent in ethically managing change, in both the dialogical and problem-centric approaches to change management Answer: Answer 1 One thing that is constant in the business is change. There is a need to understand the reasons people are resistant to change to develop effective change management strategies. According to Hon, Bloom, Crant (2014) lack of competence, fear of unknown, being deeply connected to the old methods and connected to status quo are the factors that cause an employee to be resistant to change. Change requires change in the attitude, skills and perspective and most managers are not ready for transition. Mangers take proactive steps when recognise that there is a greater risk in standing still. Change creates stress. Lack of mental resilience creates resistance. Lack of motivation creates saturation and exhaustion among employees who lack zeal to participate in change. Other factor causing workplace resistance is the miscommunication about the need of change. Mangers often believe that the current model of work is effective in profit maximisation or to gain competitive advantage. According to the Kotters change model creating the urgency or sense of the need is the first and foremost step to manage the change resistance. Therefore, poor communication is the barrier to change (Chappell et al., 2016). When mangers do not inform or involve employees in decision making it is difficult for them to give the full support to the employees. Negative perceptions such as change will favour another department or group leads to anger and resentment. Managers fail to perceive need of effective leadership skills to change the employees resistance. Further, most of the management change models focus on the rewards and benefits to trigger change in managers and employees. When the employees do not see any benefit for change or anticipate unwanted outcome they turn resistant. Use of coercion employed by mangers to trigger change only leads to compliance but not a productive change (Ybema, Thomas, Hardy, 2016). Taking the example of Uber, it is successful in its strategies despite tremendous resistance from the policy makers. It keeps changing the pricing system based on the customers needs and wants. It was not possible for the taxi service companies to initiate such change as they were making s trategies to continue the business as usual. There was no strategy to ensure customer satisfaction. The managers of taxi company failed to implement change when they perceive that their success is guaranteed due to pre-established position. Uber did overcome the resistance with innovation (Bashir, Yousaf, Verma, 2016). Answer 2 The principal agent theory highlights that the resistance and conflicts due to change arises as the firm tends to increase its profitability, while the employees tend to maximise their utility. It can also be supported by neoclassical theory according to which an organisation makes a change assuming that it will give lucrative value in future. Agent theory is also supported by neokeynesian theory (Gong, Tang, Liu, Li, 2017). The key concept to resistance in an organisation is that it is difficult to survive without profit maximisation. This goal cam be achieved by paying the employees appropriately as per their contributions and utilise the employees effectively and efficiently while demanding more of their time. On the contrary the employees tend to maximise their utility by demanding good environment, investing less efforts, high salaries and better facilities. Employees are assumed that they cannot survive without these efforts and achieving personal goals. Sometimes the demands of the firm prevent them from achieving their own gaols. It leads to conflict between the organisation and the employees. This conflict is followed by resistance to change (Lipson, 2017). Agency theory helps in resolving the resistance due to conflicting goals between organisation and employees. Agency theory helps both to work on common good. It may include by monitoring the behaviour of agents, providing incentives, evaluating the outcomes, and making efficient contracting with the agent. However, the solutions given by the agent theory are more biased towards fulfilment of firms goals. It may decrease the satisfaction of the employees. Therefore, it can be argued that the theory is unrealistically one sided. It leads to exploitation of employees. It considers the efficient markets without considering the external forces and its irregularities (Hayes, 2014). A more realistic approach is given by Stakeholders theory that resolves the conflicting goals between organisation and employees. It emphasises on the fact that a firm must consider the needs of employees and society instead of focusing on profit maximisation. The theory emphasises on maintaing a satisfactory balance between the conflicting and divergent goals/interests. However, the theory does not highlight standards for allocating relative weights to the interests of the various constituencies. The theory does not emphasise on optimal contracting. It does not instruct the firm to follow clear-cut steps. The theory is criticised to have long term approach (Kaptein, 2017). The two key theoretical ontologies used in this regard are Rationalist (Cartesian) and Social (Relational) theories. In the rationalist approach the organisation removes the human elements. In this approach each element is seen separately. According to this approach change is viewed as an objective phenomenon and considers people as separate to change. It involves the principle of I think, therefore I am. This approach thus, widens the gap between the self and other as the leaders drive the change and the workers only implement (Lowe et al., 2016). Using this model, resistance to change can be overcome by implementing the strategy based on the internal or external driver of change. Rationalist approach thus emphasise on objective set of principles and guidelines. On the other hand, the Social (Relational) approach is socially constructed by the people. It involves collaborative effort. This approach considers people as centre of change, which is a social construction. In this approac h every member of the organisation is expected to be the part of designing and implementing the change. It means it follows the principle ofWe listen and talk, therefore we are (Missonier Loufrani-Fedida, 2014). It can be concluded that irrespective of the ontology being subscribed an organisation must have understanding of different theories and implement the best possible solution. Answer 3 Managerial position gives power and control. Managers tend to engage in the paternalistic management owing to their power and control in the organisation. The mangers tend to execute their power in controlling people through orders, procedures and regulations. This is unpleasant to most employees. Traditionally management views the control dominated model as effective option. Managers tend to be tough and concentrated on imperatives using physical power such as intimidating behaviour or turning highly vocal. The managers misuse their power that creates conditions of multiple unfairness. It may be distributional level, interactional and at procedural level (Hatch, Cunliffe, 2013). This creates resistance among the employees. When the employees tend to succumb, the paternalistic management is preferred even more. There is literature evidence of destructive behaviour adopted by the manger and the abusive supervision. It is may be advantageous in meeting the targets and set goals. It ha s many negative outcomes (Bareil, 2013). According to Bareil (2013), abusive supervision leads to low level of satisfaction among employees, higher level of turnover and hampers the commitment and justice perception. It creates psychological distress among the employees. These factors relate the power to resistance among the employees. Eventually the employees engage in behaviour that can restore their autonomy. It is argued by Hkk, Vhsantanen, Paloniemi, Etelpelto (2017) that the negative reciprocity beliefs are expected to affect the relationship between power and resistance. When the mangers use the reward power that is to give rewards for high performance, the resistance is decreased. Overall, it can be concluded that there is emotion-laden differences among the group of members. It creates a political power and failure to implement change. Managers who rely on their rank to create change often make fail attempts. It is due to creation of resentment and resistance. Owing to the power and resistance various ethical issues arise. Ethical practices support change in any organisation. The change agents should not prefer change process at the cost of respect and dignity of the employees. When the managers use power to bring change that only serves self-interest, it is considered an unethical practice. If an action of the managers is the cause of the dishonest commitment. For instance, employee theft, lying to employees, abusive supervision, lack of transparency is the indicator of unethical behaviour (Hatch, Cunliffe, 2013). A manager or a leader is expected to maintain a fine line between being shrewd and exhibiting unethical practice. A manager can use the power of position to increase the employee engagement. If such actions lead to suffocation of the employee activities or employee conformity then it is consider unethical. Ethical issue that arise due to imbalance between power and resistance are lack of constructive criticism, lack of openness or clear communication, and absence of conformity to workplace (Tran, Tian, Sankoh, 2013). Lack of code of ethics will not make the employees or managers accountable for their actions. Thus, the resistance is increased. The negative relationship between power and resistance does not let the organisational culture to develop and promotes unethical behaviour (Bareil, 2013). One of the most popular examples of ethical issue arising due to relationship between power and resistance is the Enron 2001 scandal. In this organisation, the mangers driven by profit forced the employees to conduct questionable accounting system to modify the stock price of the company. Similarly, in Seven eleven stores in Australia, wage abuse was prominent. When the employee resisted the underpayment, the managers manipulated the working hours. This ethical blindness arsed from power and resistance relationship. Both Enron and Seven Elevan disregarded the employees respect and created unethical culture (Azibi, Azibi, Tondeur, 2017). Answer 4 The dialogic change model is the result-oriented, structured planning and implementation of the Stakeholder Dialogue. The principles guiding the approach are voice, listen, respect and suspend. It is influenced by the postmodern philosophy and interpretive approaches. It attributes to relational ontology. In this approach change is initiated by changing the mindset and thought process of people. This approach requires the change agent to be generative and adaptive leader. The change agent may fail to engage people emotionally due to weak alignment and mutual respect for individual perspective of cost and benefits. Without any rationale there will be lack of emotional coherence. This is a transformation approach but the relations are identified as power interactions (Bushe Marshak, 2016). For instance, it is a common experience in educational institutions, where the curricular issues are resolved while the voice of teaching staff dominated that of families. Since the subordinate posi tions are always dominated it is unethical as interactions are not based on equality. The implications may include resistance as the change methodologies are fluid and it takes long time to implement action. There is an increased uncertainty as stakeholders cannot predict change. However, there are more positive implications than negative in this approach. The positive implications due to power and resistance are active engagement of all the stakeholders and consider the impact of involvement. The change agent may have constant communication even during conflicts due to power and resistance (Bushe Marshak, 2016). On the other hand the problem-centric approach is rational process and sees change as orderly process. It attributes to rational ontology. The positive implication in implementing change ethically is leaving little space for corruption. The process of change management involves less key players and the decisions are made quickly. There may be more balance between power and resistance as the change methodologies are said to be predictive. It adds to certainty and comfort from stakeholders thereby, decreasing resistance. The negative implication includes failure to measure the human impact on organisational culture. It is criticised for not having the appreciative engagement. The change agents may communicate the change after the fact or during it. There is no communication in the planning process (Hoke, 2015). However, since dialogic approach is considered more appropriate for initiating change ethically as it involves appreciative enquiry and involves broad team. The transformational change may help disrupt the status quo and allow employees to see old situation from new perspective. Employing the total quality management is a dialogical approach. This approach is also used in mitigating the climate change via international negotiations. References Azibi, J., Azibi, H., Tondeur, H. (2017). 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